* This is not a complete list of the uses and functions of the ingredients. Some of these ingredients are used not only in hair and skin care products but for other items as well such as household cleaners.
Acrylamidopropyltrimonium Chloride/Acrylamide Copolymer: Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid & cationic surfactant.
Functions: antistatic, film forming, emulsifying, thickening ability, & conditioning agent
Acrylic acid: An organic compound, corrosive liquid
Alcohol denat: Alcohol and Alcohol Denat. function as anti-foaming agents, cosmetic astringents, solvents and viscosity decreasing agents. Also called ethanol or ethyl alcohol, is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. When used in products that are not food, beverages or oral drugs, many countries, including the United States, require that alcohol be denatured. This means that a small amount of a denaturant is added to the alcohol to make it taste bad.
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice: It moisturizes skin and soothes irritated skin
Alpha Lipoic acid: An antioxidant that is a vitamin-like chemical and inhibits melanin production
Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate: It is a modified starch. Starch is a complex carbohydrate made by plants
Functions: can keep foundation from caking onto the skin, or lessen the greasy shine associated with certain lotions, enhance the SPF factor in several sunscreens, an absorbent, acts as an anti-caking agent, a viscosity (resistance to flow) increasing agent.
Amino Acids: Building blocks for proteins and peptides and “biologically important organic compounds made from amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids”
Aminomethyl Propanol: An alkanolamine that comes in the form of either a colorless liquid or crystalline solid used as a pH adjuster
Ammonium chloride: A salt of ammonia and hydrogen chloride or reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution
Function: used to alter the thickness in a products.
Amodimethicone: A silicon-based polymer that conditions and makes it easier for a comb to glide through the hair
Amyl Cinnamal. F.I.L. D158388/1: also called alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde, is a pale yellow liquid with a floral smell suggestive of jasmine. Found naturally in plants but is often man made.
Anionic (surfactants): Anionic surfactants provide foam and lather to a product
Arginine: An amino acid
Arbutin: The natural extract found in bearberry, wheat, and certain types of pears that can improve skin tone and has been shown to block the enzyme that causes excess pigmentation
Arrowroot Powder: A dried root of the arrowroot plant
Functions: substitute for talc, acts as thickener in moisturizers & water-based products
Aspartic Acid: amino acid that helps with thinning hair and build body in the hair
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C): A white, crystalline vitamin found in citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy green vegetables that interferes with pigment production
Ascorbyl Palmitate: Non acidic form of vitamin C that acts as antioxidant and decreases free radicals generated from UVB rays
Astragalus gummifer gum: It derived from dried resin that comes from the Astragalus gummifer trees. It is used as an emulsifier and increases the thickness of the aqueous (water) portion of cosmetics and personal care products.
Beeswax/Cire D’Abeille: emollient, skin softener, soother, and moisturizer, contains vitamin A, and has anti bacterial properties
Functions: In manufacturing, yellow and white beeswax are used as thickeners, emulsifiers, and as stiffening agents in cosmetics.
Behentrimonium Chloride: A quaternary ammonium salt that acts as a cationic surfactant. It also has hair conditioning properties
Behenyl Alcohol: Natural vegetable source long chain fatty alcohol used to regulate viscosity in formulations. Functions as a thickener and stabilizer and may be used as a co-emulsifier
Benzyl Alcohol: A preservative, as the active ingredient in head lice treatment, and as a solvent. It can occur naturally in teas and essential oils. created, sometimes, by combining benzyl chloride with sodium hydroxide (lye) or reacting phenylmagnesium bromide with formaldehyde.
Benzophenone-4: Protect cosmetics and personal care products from deterioration by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UVB rays. It doesn’t protect against all UVA rays.
Beta-carotene: It is a precursor to Vitamin A. the body converts beta-carotene to Vitamin A.
Functions: promote hair growth, strengthen hair, and helps out with thinning hair and has anti-oxidants properties
BIS(C13-15 ALKOXY) PG-Amodimethicone: Amodimethicone endblocked with C13-15 alkoxy groups, and with the amine groups further reacted with glycidol. Functions: film-forming, dispersing, adsorbing, antistatic, defoaming, brightening, lubricating, and emulsifying abilities. It is used as a hair conditioning agent
Brassica Campestris/Aleurites Fordi Oil Copolymer: A natural copolymer made by combining chinawood (tung) and turnip (canola) oils under heat and pressure. Gives shine and slip to hair and lip care products. No plastics or chemical additives are used in making this copolymer.
B sistosterol: A phytosterol and used to reduce swelling & itching
Butane: A colorless and odorless gases used in cosmetics and personal care products as a replacements for chlorofluorocarbons and to propel the product out of the bottle if it is an aerosol product
Butylene Glycol: A humectant in hair products derived from coconut
Caffeine: Promotes hair growth according to the results of a study that was published in 2014 in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Study link results: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24836650
Calcium Hydroxide: Inorganic compound that is made by mixing calcium oxide with water. Used in skin care products to remove body hair. Also an alkali used as a lye substitute in no-lye hair relaxers
Calcium Thioglycolate Hydroxide: The resulting combinations of calcium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and thioglycolic acid are calcium thioglycolate. It breaks down the chemical bonds that hold the protein structure of your hair together
Calendula extract: A carrier oil that helps with an itchy scalp
Caprylyl glycol: limits bacteria growth
Carnitine: A quaternary ammonium compound helps with hair growth but this is debated
Carnosine: A compound normally found in our bodies that declines as we get older & reverses protein tangles in the skin (protein in cell becomes tangled which increases the appearance of aging)
Carrageenan: A seaweed used as a food additive for hundreds of years to accentuate flavors and provide a smooth texture to foods. It is used in cosmetics, shampoos, toothpastes and other skin care ingredients as an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener. It can help the skin to remain soft.
Carrier Oils: Nut, seed, or vegetable oil that is used to dilute essential oils. Carrier oils can be used for massages, medicinal purposes, and as moisturizers.
Carotenoids: Colorful plant pigments the body can turn into vitamin A
Cationic surfactants: Cationic surfactants that provide conditioning to a product.
Ceteareth-20: A nonionic surfactant prepared from cetyl-stearyl alcohol and 20 moles of ethylene oxide. Provides exceptionally stable emulsions when used in combination with another emulsifier such as glyceryl stearate.
Cetearyl alcohol: An emulsifying and stabilizing wax produced from the reduction of plant oils and natural waxes. It is used as an emollient and to give a high viscosity to the product.
Cetrimonium Chloride: A quaternary ammonium salt. Functions: prevent static and build-up in the hair, preventing the growth of microorganisms and helps form emulsions
Cetrimonium Methosulfate: A quaternary ammonium salt. Provides thickening of product, softening and conditioning. Antimicrobial, aniti static, emulsifying, hair conditioning and surfactant
Cetyl alcohol: This fatty alcohol is used to provide shine, makes the hair easier to comb, increases the goodness of BTMS, can be a co-emulsifier, and is a white solid or flakes. It can also thicken products as well. It can be made from coconut fatty alcohol with some sort of base. It isn’t always made from coconut fatty alcohol but various fats and oil. It is a waxy crystalline alcohol that can be derived from palmitic acid.
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract: Relieves itchiness and provide relief for inflamed skin
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis Peel Oil: A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the ripe fruit of the sweet orange. Functions: astringent and fragrance
Cocoamide MEA: Made by mixing the fatty acids from coconut oil and monoethanolamine (MEA). Definition for MEA is below. Thickens the (water) portion of cosmetic product and increases foaming capacity and/or stabilizes foam increases foaming capacity and/or stabilizes foam
Comedogenicity: It is the term used to describe how likely an ingredient or product will clog your pores. The internet will find several charts that list several products level of comedogenicity. A high rating of comedogenicity doesn’t necessarily mean the product will irritate the face or cause acne. However, acne prone skin chances have an increased chance that acne will occur or become worse.
Copolymer: A copolymer is made when two different types of molecules are joined in the same polymer chain
Cornstarch: A a silky, powdery starch made from corn. Function: good substitute for talc, when used in water-based formulations, act as thickener, & known as corn flour as well.
Crystine: An amino acid
Cure: After soap has been made and placed in the molds letting it sit until the water is evaporated. More water used equals longer cure time. Evaporated water means firmer soap.
Cyclodextrin: Known as cycloamylose too; naturally occurring polysaccharide that is produced from starch. Functions: odor absorption capabilities/stabilizes fragrances, a stabilizer that keeps other ingredients from evaporating and losing efficacy, and reduce the foam in a solution an enhance the solubility and delivery of other ingredients in a product.
Cyclomethicone/Cyclopentasiloxane: Known by both names. It is a “volatile methyl siloxane which makes up a class of liquid silicones (cyclic polydimethylsiloxane polymers)”. A silicone that helps makes ingredients easier to smooth onto the hair. It will help the hair dry faster and leaves the hair as it is drying. It adds the silky feeling to hair.
C12-15 alkyl benzoate: C12-15 alkyl benzoate can detangle hair and eliminate frizz but it is not as strong as silicones. It is an ester of benzoic acid.
Dicaprylate/Dicaprate Propylene Glycol: It is derived from Propylene Glycol, and is a diester of proplyene glycol and fatty acids; it is a mixture of Propylene Glycol Dicaprylate and Propylene Glycol Dicaprate.
Dicetyldimonium chloride: A quaternary ammonium salt. Functions: anti static agent, anti static agent, cleanser, and contains hair conditioning properties
Diisopropyl Adipate: It is an ester isopropyl alcohol and adipic acid. It’s clear, colorless to light yellow viscous liquids. Functions: act as lubricants on the skin’s surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. It is also used to dissolve other substances in cosmetics and personal care products and to soften synthetic compounds by reducing brittleness and cracking.
Dimethicone: It is a silicone oil that contains dimethylsiloxane polymers that gives skin a slip and silky feeling. It also acts as a water-resistant emollient and protects the skin from becoming irritated.
Dimethiconol: A silicone based polymer that resembles dimethicone, except that molecules of dimethiconol end with hydroxyl (-OH) groups.
Uses: antifoaming, antistatic, film foaming, and hair fixative
Disodium EDTA: A salt of edetic acid. Functions: “preservative, chelator and stabilizer, but has also been shown to enhance the foaming and cleaning capabilities of a cosmetic solution. As a metal chelator, it counteracts the adverse effects of hard water by binding with heavy metal ions contained in tap water, which in turn prevents the metals from being depositied onto the skin, hair and scalp”
Disteardimonium Hectorite: A modified clay compound in which some sodium cations of the clay (hectorite) have been replaced by stearyldimonium groups. Function: dispersing agent – nonsurfactant
Distearyldimonium Chloride: A positive charged surfactant. It serves an emulsifier, provides silky feeling to skin when used in skin care products. It helps with anti-static and acts as a hair conditioning agent.
Distearoylethyl Dimonium Chloride: A quaternary ammonium salt. An anti static agent and hair conditioning agent
Functions: functions as an anti static, antibacterial, preservative, anti-corrosive, emulsifying, and solubilizing ability
DMDM Hydantoin: It is a white, crystalline solid. It’s synthetic, formaldehyde-releasing preservative.
Functions: preservative that work by acting as formaldehyde donors. breaks down slowly over time to release a tiny amount of formaldehyde. broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, effective against fungi, yeast, and bacteria.
Edetic acid: A complex molecule used medically to chelate metal ions in cases of lead or heavy metal poisoning
Emulsifier: An emulsifier is the ingredient that makes ingredient remain mixed together. For example, oil and water do not mix and will separate. An emulsifier will make the oil and water remain mixed together.
Emulsion: A mixture of two liquids that normally cannot be mixed, in which one liquid is dispersed in the other liquid
Esters: A result from the reaction of alcohol and carboxylic acid toward one another. Carboxylic acid is an organic acid that derives from carboxylic molecules that contains one carbon, oxygen, and hydroxyl atom.
Functions: emollients, provides the fragrances in products, and thickeners
Essential Oils: These oils are the essences of plants or leaves which is the reason for the potency and are not as heavy as carrier oils. They are used for medicinal purposes, aromatherapy, and as moisturizers.
Ethylene Brassylate: A fragrance ingredient that is also known as Musk T that is synthetic, sometimes mainly derived from plants
Ethylhexylglycerin: conditioning agent and preservative
Fatty Acids: Fatty acids are what, in part, compose oils and are considered essential or non-essential. Essential fatty acids are those that are not naturally produced by the body while non-essential fatty acids are produced by the body. Fatty acids reduce frizziness, provide moisture, penetrates the hair shaft, enhances softness, and much more.
Fatty Alcohol: Fatty alcohols provide conditioning and manageability. Fatty alcohols help to give and enhance that silky/soft feeling we like for our hair and skin.
Floral Waters: Floral waters are obtained by straining essential oil that has been mixed with distilled water for a certain length of time or by combining grain alcohol with the oil to create an emulsion. If the product is made through this process it will contain even less diluted elements of an essential oil than a hydrosol.
Fragrance/Parfum: mixture of fragrant essential oils, solvents, fixatives, and/or aroma compounds
Glycerin: transports water from the environment and from the lower layers of skin (dermis) to surface skin (epidermis). It softens the skin. Glycerin is a substance naturally present in skin which helps maintain the epidermis and prevent dryness
Glycine: naturally occurring amino acid. anti static properties and conditions the hair and skin.
Glycols: class of alcohols that contain two hydroxyl groups – also referred to as diols.
Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride: resinous material made from the guar bean
Functions: viscosity increasing agents, skin-conditioning agents, hair conditioning agents, & antistatic agents
Hexapeptide-11: fermented peptide that stimulates hair growth at the cell level
Hexyl Cinnamal: A fragrance that can be found in the essential oil of chamomile but often man made. Pale yellow to yellow clear liquid to solid, which is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in oils.
Hexylene Glycol: considered glycols or glycol ethers. Glycols are a class of alcohols that contain two hydroxyl groups – also referred to as diols. Functions: typically used as solvents and viscosity decreasing agents
Histidine: amino acid
Honeyquat: A polymer that can be used to add additional conditioning with a primary conditioner or used as the primary conditioner for some. Some homecrafters use it as a primary conditioner for products that are to be used daily.
Humectants: ingredients or products that seal in moisture
Hydrofluorocarbon: a type of gas used especially in aerosols (containers that force out liquids in very small drops)
Hydrolyzed guar: made from guar bean
Functions: thickener and emulsifier
Hydrosols: Hydrosols are the products that remain after roots, barks, plants, flower, or seeds are steam distilled. Hydrosols can also be the remnants of the essential oil making process and can be applied to the skin without dilution.
Hydroquinone: organic white granular solid used as a topical application to lighten acne scars
In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration revoked its previous approval of hydroquinone and proposed a ban on over the counter preparations. The FDA proclaimed that hydroquinone cannot be excluded as a potential carcinogen. The FDA has classified hydroquinone currently as a safe product, as currently used. In the United States, topical treatments usually contain up to 2%. Otherwise, higher concentrations (up to 4%) should be prescribed and used with caution
-still debated if it is safe to use
– sometimes combined with alpha hydroxy acids that exfoliate the skin to quicken the lightening process
-can make the skin more susceptible to harmful impact of the sun so be sure to wear sunblock if wearing products that contain hydroquinone
Hydroxyethylcellulose: Cellulose is a naturally occurring component found in the cell walls of plants
Functions: a preservative, emulsifier, binder and thickener in beauty products.
Iron Oxides: chemical compound that is made of oxygen and iron
Functions: tint blushes, eye shadows, foundations and other cosmetic formulations & can be blended with pearlescent mica powders
Isobutane: colorless and odorless gases used in cosmetics and personal care products as a replacements for chlorofluorocarbons and to propel the product out of the bottle if it is an aerosol product
Isononyl Isononanoate: makes the product less sticky and easy to spread
Isopentane: colorless and odorless gases used in cosmetics and personal care products as a replacements for chlorofluorocarbons and to propel the product out of the bottle if it is an aerosol product
Isopropyl Myristate: A manufactured oil that is created by condensing myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol. It may create a breakout of acne.
Functions: emollient, lubricant, and used in products for head lice, easily absorbed by the skin, decreases the greasy feeling of products, and helps skin products to penetrate the skin.
Japanese Honeysuckle: strong anti inflammatory properties, anti-viral, anti bacterial, and anti fungal
Kelp: helps with thinning hair
Keratinocytes: Cells that are found in the epidermis. The keratinocytes at the outer surface of the epidermis are dead and form a tough protective layer. The cells underneath the epidermis divide to replenish the supply.
Kojic acid: leftover residue from fermenting Japanese rice wine, found in other natural foods including soy and rice, and produced by a variety of fungi
Lactic Acid: pH adjuster
Lanolin: A wax from the sebaceous glands of sheep that allows the wool to shed water. In cosmetics and skin care products it acts as an emollient that forms a water repellent film on the skin.
Lauric Acid: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Leucine: amino acid
Linalool: pale yellow liquid with a floral smell similar to that of bergamot oil and French lavender. It is a naturally occurring substance that is used to make fragrances.
Linolenic Acid, Part 1: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Linolenic Acid, Part 2: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Lysine: amino acid
Magnesium Stearate: created by the reaction of sodium stearate with magnesium sulfate. soft, white powder. Functions: used as dusting additive & as an anti-caking, binding, thickening & gelling agent, provides good slip & adhesion. can be dispersed in oil or water and added to formulations requiring opacity and viscosity
Magnolia biondii bud/flower extract: fragrance
Maleic acid: organic compound
Maleic anhydride: organic compound
Malic acid: dicarboxylic acid found in many sour or tart-tasting foods. used for in dental hygiene products by working as an antiseptic and encouraging saliva production. Skin care: it tightens the pores, reduces the signs of any wrinkles or lines. pH adjuster
Methylchloroisothiazolinone: preservative used to fight bacteria
Methylheptyl Isostearate: helps to give that silky feeling to hair or skin
Methylisothiazolinone: preservative used to fight bacteria
Methyl vinyl ether: organic compound
Mica Powder (Uncolored): “Natural shimmer pigment from the mineral Muscovite Mica (potassium aluminum silicate)”.
Functions: Filler & texturizer for improved skin feel, increases slip & aids skin adhesion, acts as bulking agent in emulsions, reduces greasiness of oil-containing formulas, can replace talc as filler, anti-caking properties (prevents clumping)
Mineral Oil/Huile Minérale: clear, colorless, odorless, petroleum derivative
Monoethanolamine (MEA): It is an interaction of ammonia of water solution of ammonia and ethylene oxide.
Functions: replacement ph adjuster in haircolor that is considered ammonia-free and used at lower percentages and coupled with emollient oils, making it less volatile and less corrosive
Myristic Acid: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Myristyl Myristate: Fatty acid derivative-an occlusive skin conditioning agent that enhances spreadability and reduces transparency. It is used for emulsions that have to melt into the skin upon contact.
Nicotinamide: Promotes scalp circulation & known as vitamin B3
Oat Starch: white, free-flowing powder
Functions: attributes of talc and the soothing, anti-irritating attributes of oats, highly absorbent, and is used to help absorb oil, sooth the skin and lighten cosmetics.
It has a high protein content & has fragrance retention.
“theory is that Octocrylene appears to be a strong allergen leading to contact dermatitis in children and mostly photoallergic contact dermatitis in adults with an often-associated history of photoallergy from ketoprofen (a pain reliever)” Source: Beauty Brains
Oleic Acid: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Oryza Sativa Starch: a high-polymeric carbohydrate material derived from the peeled seeds of rice. It acts as an absorbent, binding agent, and viscosity controlling agent
Ozokerite: Great wax to give hardness, gel strength & consistency, insures color uniformity in color cosmetics, emulsifying & emollient properties, compatible with all kinds of mineral & plant oils & waxes. It is a naturally occuring wax formed in earth such as in mountains.
Palmitic Acid: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Palmitoleic Acid: Click on the link for more detail about this acid.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4: provides skin smoothing and softening without irritation, reduce sun damage, & reduces wrinkles
Pearlescent Mica Powders: group of silicate minerals
Functions: The powders provide shimmering appearance and are easy to work with for creating eye shadows, blushers, lip colors and other cosmetics.
The powders are available in a wide array of colors and are tinted with oxides and other colorants. Not all Pearlescent Mica Powders are safe to use in lip or eye products.
PEG 14M: help to keep an emulsion from separating into its oil and liquid components and increase the thickness of the aqueous (water) portion of cosmetic products. The number in the name represents the average number of ethylene glycol units. The letter with the number stands for 1000, so PEG-25M is has an average of 25,000 units of ethylene glycol.
Pelargonium graveolens flower oil: geranium, smells good
Pentaerythrityl tetra-di-t-butyl hydroxyhydrocinnamate: antioxidant that inhibits reactions promoted by oxygen
Peptides: “short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds, the covalent chemical bonds formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as a benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 amino acids or less”
Phenoxyethanol: fights bacteria and yeast and can sometimes increase the life of a product’s fragrance
Phenylalanine: amino acid
Pheyl Trimethicone: derivative of silica & silicone that has a drier finish than Dimethicone
– “enhance the look and feel of hair by providing body and sheen and to improve the texture of damaged hair”
– protect hair from the heat of a blow-dryer
Phytosterol: a group of steroid alcohols, naturally occurring in plants & a natural cortisone used to treat dermatitis, itching, & inflammatory skin conditions
Polymer: “a chemical compound or mixture of compounds formed by polymerization and consisting essentially of repeating structural units” (merriam-webster.com)
Polymerization: “1. a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units 2. reduplication of parts in an organism” (merriam-webster)
Polyquaternium-7: synthetic polymer based on quaternary ammonium compounds and co-polymer of diallylmethyl ammonium chloride
Uses: antistatic agent, film former, & used on the primary conditioner agent for a light conditioning agent
Polyquaternium 28: polymeric quaternary ammonium salt
Functions: antistatic and film firming
Polyquaternium 47: a polymeric quaternary ammonium chloride formed by the polymerization of acrylic acid, methyl acrylate and methacrylamidopropyltrimonium chloride. Funtions: film former, humectant, wet hair combing and detangling properties, adds luster to dry hair, a soft, silky feeling to products and hair
Polysorbate 20: Derived from oleic oil. Functions: nonionic surfactant, emulsifier,and enhance fragrances Functions: film-forming agent, emollient, conditioning agent, humectant in personal care products, & antistatic agent
Polysorbate 80: nonionic surfactants (cleanser) and ester that can be used to make products stable (stay mixed together and work well together and/or (depending upon other ingredients) enhance smells
PPG-3 Benzyl ether myristate: PPG-3 Benzyl ether myristate detangles the hair, adds shine, and prevents frizz. It’s water soluble, therefore, it blends nicely with water and water soluble substances.
Propane: colorless and odorless gases used in cosmetics and personal care products as a replacements for chlorofluorocarbons and to propel the product out of the bottle if it is an aerosol product
: An ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid
. It is an antioxidant.
Propylene Glycol: humectant and helps to booster certain preservatives
: A paraben
that is a compound of parahydroxybenzoic acid
. It can be found in plants but can be made synthetically as well. It works as a preservatives and antimicrobials
Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract: helps to flatten the cuticles of the hair shaft leaving hair shiny and smooth
PVM/MA Copolymer: copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride or maleic acid Functions: binders, film formers and hair fixatives
Quaternary ammonium salt: also known as quaternary ammonium compound. “any of a class of salts derived from ammonium in which the nitrogen atom is attached to four organic groups, as in benzalkonium chloride; the salts are cationic surface-active compounds used as antiseptics and disinfectants”
Quaternium-15: quaternary ammonium salt. cream-colored powder with a pungent odor. formaldehyde releaser. quaternary ammonium salt used as a surfactant and preservative Functions: used to kill microorganisms, or to prevent or inhibit their growth and reproduction, used as preservative (effective against yeast, molds and bacteria)
Quaternium-91: quaternary ammonium salt. anti static properties. emulsifying properties
Sage: antioxidant, astringent, and antibacterial qualities, is a soothing hair tonic and a natural treatment for scalp dryness. Sage adds depth to dark hair and helps darken graying hair. It is used to remove residual shampoo and conditioner that has built up on your hair to leave it shiny and soft.
Saponification: chemical reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt. For soap making the salt is the actual soap that is produced by mixing lye (the base) with an oil or fat (the acid).
Sebaceous glands: These glands are located all over the body except for hands and feet. This is where the body’s oil (sebum) is created. These glands give the face that oily or greasy feeling.
Sebum: The oil that the body creates, is produced by the sebaceous glands which are located among the reticular region of the dermis, second layer of skin.
Sodium Chloride: table salt
Sodium Chloride MEA: salt and monoethanolamine that increases the thickness of the water portion of cosmetics
Sodium Hyaluronate: It is a sodium salt of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate or HA) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues
Sodium Hydroxide: inorganic compound made in part from sodium chloride known as lye, pH adjuster, and strong alkaline substance
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: A mixture of sulfuric acid, monododecyl ester, and sodium salt that is the detergent in everyday products. In extremely high heat and its natural state the chemical compound will produce a toxic fume.
Sodium PCA: PCA stands for sodium salt of pyrrolidone carbonic acid. It is a humectant in hair products.
Sodium Polyacrylate: “white powder when dry but turns into a gel-like substance when wet
Functions: absorbing agent, emulsion stabilizer, film former, emollient, and viscosity increasing agent, used as thickening agent, and used in diapers b/c of its absorbing nature
Stearalkonium Chloride: A salt that binds and draws protein. It is used to improve wet combing, add shine, and helps to reduce frizz.
Properties of Stearalkonium Chloride:
-improves wet combing
-attracts and binds protein
Stearamidopropyl Dimethylamine: a fatty mine salt & cleansing conditioner that adds slip, anti-static agent, & used for its luminescent, pearl-like properties
Sucrose Polycottonseedate: emulsifying agent
sucrose, also known as table sugar, combined with various specific fatty acids, or sucrose combined with mixtures of fatty acids from specific plants
Surfactant: Surfactant means surface active agent. One half of it likes water while the remainder prefers oils. Surfactants in shampoos and conditioners are the cleansing/detergent ingredient. Surfactants act as detergents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and wetting agents.
Sugar Cane: gives shine, acts as an exfoliator and encourages cell renewal of the scalp
(Sweet Clover) Melilotus Officinalis Extract: Functions: astringent or fragrance
Titanium Dioxide: white, opaque and naturally-occurring mineral that is chemically processed to remove these impurities.
Functions: leaves a soft shimmer on the skin or to lighten the Pearlescent Mica Powders, odorless and absorbent
Controversy regarding if it is a carcinogen: “The MSDS (material safety data sheets)states that titanium dioxide can cause some lung fibrosis at fifty times the nuisance dust, defined by the US Department of Labor as 15 mg/m cubed (OSHA) or 10 mg/m cubed (ACGIH Threshold Limit Value). Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified titanium dioxide to be a possible human carcinogen, thus a group 2B carcinogen. In Canada, titanium dioxide is now listed under WHMIS class D2A (carcinogen)as a result of the IARC designation (ccohs.ca).”
Tocopherol: Vitamin E
Tocopheryl Acetate: Vitamin E combined with acetic acid . It is a fat soluble vitamin. It is a skin-conditioning agent and antioxidant. It also provides anti aging qualities as well. It is the ester of acetic acid and tocopherol
Trace: Scratch made soap, you have a blend of lye & water and your heated oils until the soap reaches trace. Once the soap “traces”, the mixture will not separate back into the original oils, lye and water blend. To test for trace, dip a spatula or spoon into the mix and dribble a bit of it back into the pot. If it leaves a little “trace” behind, you’re fine. You don’t want to see any oil that sticks out.
Trideceth: cleansing agent (surfactant) and emulsifier
Tryptophanmethionine: amino acid
(Urtica Diooca Extract): derived from the nettle plant. Functions: skin-conditioning agent and promotes anti-dandruff
Valine: amino acid
Vitis Vinifera Seed Oil: grape seed oil. Functions: moisturizes skin and can be used to relieve itching
Vitamin A: an antioxidant that can aid in enhancing the immune system to infections, help to prevent cancer and decrease your risk of getting heart disease.
Wheat Protein: penetrates the cortex
Witch hazel: scalp cleanser
Xanathum Gum: thickner